Copyright ©1996, Que Corporation. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system without prior written permission of the publisher except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose other than your own personal use is a violation of United States copyright laws. For information, address Que Corporation, 201 West 103rd Street, Indianapolis, IN 46290 or at support@mcp .com.

Notice: This material is excerpted from Special Edition Using Microsoft Exchange Server, ISBN: 0-7897-0687-3. The electronic version of this material has not been through the final proof reading stage that the book goes through before being published in printed form. Some errors may exist here that are corrected before the book is published. This material is provided "as is" without any warranty of any kind.

12 - Directory and System Attendant Configuration

With this section, we begin covering the details for configuring your Exchange server components. First, we will cover the step to set up each Exchange site down to the server level. This will teach you to set site configuration properties as well as general settings for the core components of each Microsoft Exchange server. Subsequent chapters cover configuring additional components and using elements together to develop a complete Exchange organization.

In this chapter, you will learn the step-by-step process of configuring the core component properties.

Configuration features that will be discussed in this chapter:

Configuring Directory Services

DS site configuration allows you to set preferences on Exchange site directory functions. Settings made to this object's properties affect an entire Microsoft Exchange site.

In this section you learn about the following:

First let us define some concepts essential to proper configuration of the Directory Service agent.

Tombstone Lifetime

A "tombstone" in Exchange directory terms is a marker representing a deleted directory object. At the moment when you delete a directory object, it is removed instantly from the local server only. All the other Exchange servers that participate in directory replication with this server do not become immediately aware of that object's deletion. Therefore, a "tombstone" marker is created that when replicated to other servers informs them of the original object's deletion. The tombstone lifetime dictates the number of days a tombstone marker exists before it expires and can be deleted from the system.

Here are some considerations for setting tombstone lifetimes:

Situation 1--Frequency of directory object deletion. If you set the tombstone lifetime for an excessively long period of time and you frequently delete objects, there will be a large number of tombstone markers clogging your entire directory replication system.

Situation 2--Length of time a server could be down. For example, you set the tombstone lifetime for a site at seven days. Let's say one server in your site is down for over a week. That server that was down will not be notified of an object's deletion before the tombstone of some directory object is deleted. There will be some directory inconsistencies to correct.

Tombstones cannot be used to un-delete a previously deleted directory object.

Garbage Collection Interval

The garbage collection interval determines the number of hours between deletion of expired tombstone markers (referred to as garbage). Much like a traditional garbage collection service, this operation is a scheduled removal of expired directory "garbage." Once directory object tombstone markers have expired they are ready ("placed on the curb") for deletion at the garbage collection interval.

Offline Address Book

Remote users can take advantage of Exchange address lists by downloading a current version of the offline address book. This address list is generated from the main address list and the process is managed through these property pages. A remote user uses the offline address book like a standard recipient directory when disconnected from the network. The offline address book contains only the recipients or recipient groups specified by the Exchange administrator. The offline address book object itself is a hidden public folder held in the public information store of a designated Exchange server. There can be only one offline address book per site.

Custom Attributes

Custom attributes pertain specifically to recipients. They are added to represent any extra information you want to have entered when creating recipients. Where standard attributes are city, state, zip, phone number a custom attribute can be anything from birthday, age, or hair color, to favorite music or bowling average.

Configuring DS Site Property Pages

In this section, you begin to configure the DS Site property pages. You will find that a wide variety of settings affect how directory functions are carried out it you Exchange site.

The General Page

Figure 12.1 shows the General property page and the various directory settings associated with it.

1. Select the General tab of the DS Site configuration property pages. The General property page appears.

Fig. 12.1

General directory settings for a site

2. Enter a Display name for this object as you want it to be displayed in the Exchange administrator program. By default, this name is DS Site Configuration. The Alias name is set to Site-DSA-Config and cannot be modified.

3. Next to Tombstone lifetime (days), enter the length of time (in days) until a directory object's tombstone marker (see above) expires. By default, this value is set to 30 days.

4. Next to Garbage collection interval (hours), enter the interval (in hours) between deletion of expired tombstone markers. See above for a more detailed description of the garbage collection interval. By default, this value is set to 12 hours.

5. Click Apply to set these properties and continue with other properties. If you are done with all settings, click OK to return to the administrator program.

The Permissions Page

This property page allows you to define certain Windows NT user accounts that have rights to modify this directory object.

The Offline Address Book Schedule Page

This property page allows you to determine at what intervals a new offline address book will be generated.

1. Select the Offline Address Book Schedule tab of the DS Site Configuration Properties pages. The property page in figure 12.2 appears.

Fig. 12.2

Set the schedule for creating an offline address book.

2. Click Always to continually re-generate updated versions of an offline address book. Once a cycle completes, a new one begins immediately.

3. Click Selected times and use the time grid to set specific times when offline address book generation will begin.

4. Example: If you know that your remote users connect first thing in the morning to update their offline address books, then set the schedule to begin several hours before you expect most of them to connect. That way the whole generation cycle will be complete, and the address book they download will be as complete as possible.

5. Click Apply to set these properties and continue with other properties. If you are done with all settings, click OK to return to the administrator program.

Generating an offline address book can often take several hours. If one cycle of offline address book generation carries into the next scheduled generation time, the generation will finish normally, then begin again at the next scheduled time after its completion.

The Offline Address Book Page

This property page defines parameters on how the offline address book will be created. You choose what elements of the directory will be included. If you desire a highly customized list of recipients to be included in the offline address book, then consider creating a recipient container dedicated to offline address book generation.

1. Select the Offline Address Book tab of the DS Site Configuration Properties pages. The property page in figure 12.3 appears.

Fig. 12.3

Set offline address book creation and location options

2. Select the Offline Address Book server by utilizing the pull-down menu. This is the server that will actually generate the offline address book and from which a remote user will download the information. By default, this is the Microsoft Exchange server to which you are currently connected.

Since generation of a large offline address book can be a lengthy process, select a lower traffic server (if available) to perform this task.

3. Click Generate Offline Address Book Now to immediately begin the generation of a new offline address book.

Before an offline address book is available to remote users, it must first be generated. Note your generation schedule to see if the next scheduled cycle falls within an acceptable time frame. If necessary, click the Generate Offline Address Book Now to create it immediately.

4. The Generate data files from the Address Book container box displays which recipient container is used to create the offline address book. Typically, you will use the global address list container in the offline address book for this site. Note that by default the selected container is the recipients from the local Exchange site, not the global address list. Click Modify to select a new recipient container.

5. Choose the recipient container you want to use for the offline address book. Click OK to accept your choice.

6. Click Apply to set these properties and continue with other properties. If you are done with all settings, click OK to return to the administrator program.

There must be only one offline address book per Microsoft Exchange site. Replicating the offline address book hidden public folder will create directory errors.

The Custom Attributes Page

This property page allows you to define characteristics that will appear on the Custom Attributes property page of each recipient in the local site. The field can be defined to display any additional information for which you want to create a space.

Creating Custom Attribute fields:

1. Select the Custom Attributes tab of the DS Site Configuration Properties page. The property page in figure 12.4 appears.

Fig. 12.4

Set the custom attribute whose values you will set in the recipient's properties pages.

2. Type in the names of Custom Attributes 1-10 in the spaces provided. By default these entries are literally named "Custom Attribute 1" through "Custom Attribute 10."

3. Click Apply to set these properties and continue with other properties. If you are done with all settings, click OK to return to the administrator program.

Configuring Site Addressing

These sets of property pages allow you to configure site properties that have to do with routing messages to their intended destination within an Exchange system. These options determine which servers will be used to calculate routing tables, and when to calculate those tables. Also, you can use these pages to get an overview of how messaging links are established in you organization.

Configuring the Site Addressing Properties page:

The General Page

In this property page, you can edit this object's Display name and also:

Choose a Routing Calculation server. This server will be responsible for processing routing data for this server. The updated routing table will then be replicated to this server.

Choose to Share address space with other X.400 systems l(see fig. 12.5) With this option selected, if an incoming X.400 message cannot find its intended Exchange recipient, it will be routed to the system sharing this address space. This option is helpful when running Exchange side by side a foreign X.400 system (for example, during a migration to Exchange). By default, X.400 address space is not shared.

Fig. 12.5

Set general site routing parameters.

The Site Addressing Page

E-mail addresses are used by the various Exchange gateways and connectors to identify specific directory objects to other messaging systems (see fig. 12.6). In this case, these addresses affect all messages routed to this site. There are three default addresses created each for MS Mail, SMTP, and X.400. If other connectors or gateways are installed, those addresses can be created by default as well.

Fig. 12.6

Set e-mail address entries for the entire site.

The Routing Calculation Schedule Page

When changes in site configuration are made, routing tables need to be rebuilt in order to maintain accurate message delivery information. By default, routing is calculated once per day at 4:00 a.m. local time (see fig 12.7). Generally, the default settings will be more than adequate to maintain up-to-date routing tables in your site; use the manual override when immediate recalculation is necessary. If your site undergoes frequent changes in components (more servers, new connector types, etc.), you may want to increase the routing calculation frequency.

Set the schedule in a standard schedule property page:

Fig. 12.7

Define a schedule when routing table calculations occur.

The Routing Page

Click on a type of message destination and click details to view the route of such a message. The dialog boxes in figures 12.8 and 12.9 appear.

Fig. 12.8

View the message routes available from this Exchange site.

Fig. 12.9

View Routing Details for connector available from this site. Note the file extensions for this file type.

Server Property Pages

Each Microsoft Exchange server has its own set of property pages. Here, you can configure general functions that apply specifically to a single Exchange server.

The following are the property pages for server configuration:

Opening Server Property Page:

1. Navigate to your desired site with the Exchange administrator program.

2. Click on the Configuration container of the selected site. All the site configuration objects appear in the administrator program's right window.

3. Open the Servers container. A list of Exchange servers in your site will be listed.

4. Click the server name on which is the Private Information Store you want to configure (see fig. 12.10). The following list of server objects is visible on the right display window of the Microsoft Exchange Administrator Program.

Fig. 12.10

Select the Exchange server to edit, then open its properties.

5. Open its property pages by selecting Properties from the administrator program file menu or by pressing Alt+Enter.

Configuring Exchange Server Properties:

The General Page

This property page displays the server's Directory name and has a space for an additional Administrative note (see fig. 12.11).

The server's directory name cannot be changed without reinstalling Microsoft Exchange.

Fig. 12.11

The server name cannot be changed after Exchange has been installed.

The Permissions Page

This property page allows you to define certain Windows NT user accounts that have rights to modify this directory object. See chapter 11 for a detailed description on working with the standard Permissions property page.

The Services Page

This property page allows you to define what services will be checked by a Microsoft Exchange server monitor. The top display window shows all services currently installed on this Windows NT server. The bottom display window shows all the services currently monitored by Exchange.

Select a service from the top window and click Add to add it to the list of Monitored Services (see fig. 12.12).

Select a service from the bottom window and click Remove to take it off the list of Monitored Services.

Click Default to return to the basic services selected by Exchange Server.

Fig. 12.12

Select the services to be monitored by an Exchange server monitor.

The Locales Page

Locales determine how values (such as date or currency) are displayed in the Exchange client. International settings are determined by the Exchange client settings (see chapter 28, "Understanding User Interface Features") and also affect default sorting order for lists. This property page allows you to activate certain locales from the list of installed locales.

The Installed Locales window displays all the formats currently installed on this Exchange server.

Click Add or Remove to edit the list of Selected Locales.

The Selected Locales window displays what formats are in use (see fig. 12.13).

Fig. 12.13

Use this dialog box to add or remove support for various foreign language Exchange clients.

The Database Paths Page

The Database Paths are pointers to the hard disk files where Exchange actually stores information. This property page allows you to set the paths to the directory and the public and private information store files on this server. The paths are set up when you initially install Exchange Server.

The three main Exchange server databases are:

1. Directory

2. Private

3. Public Information Store

Additional information files (see fig 12.14) store additional Exchange data such as transaction logs.

One basic way to improve Exchange performance is to spread the database files across several hard drives. The Microsoft Exchange Optimizer can assist with this process.

Fig. 12.14

Use this dialog box to view the physical location; i.e., hard disk, for the various types of Exchange data.

Click on the Modify button to bring up the following dialog box.

Browse through your system's file structure and select a location for the database information.

The IS Maintenance Page

Information Store Maintenance optimizes an Exchange server's operating speed. Basic maintenance includes disk defragmentation for improved hard disk performance (see fig. 12.15). Use this page to schedule maintenance for each Exchange server.

Maintenance tasks are taxing on hard drive and overall server performance. Always schedule them at the server's least busy period of the day.

Fig. 12.15

Select the least busiest time of the day for information store data upkeep.

The Advanced Page

This property page allows you to configure two advance options:

Database Circular Logging

Enabling these two checkboxes allows Exchange to write over transaction log files after their data is saved to the database. Use this option to save drive space only if storage space availability is a serious consideration.

If the circular logging options are enabled, you will no longer be able to perform differential and incremental backups (see chapter 23, Exchange Maintenance").

DS/IS Consistency Adjustment

There are two components to each directory object saved in a server's information store: the object itself and a corresponding entry in the directory. Consistency adjustment corrects errors arising by mismatched information. This feature will either add or delete a directory entry to match the existence or absence of information store information.

This property page allows you to control at what point these inconsistencies are to be corrected.

Select either the All inconsistencies to correct them immediately or select Inconsistencies more than days and enter the time an inconsistency can exist before it is automatically corrected (see fig. 12.16).

Fig. 12.16

Set general logging and inconsistency adjustment preferences.

Diagnostics Logging

This property page works in conjunction with the Windows NT Event Log to record various "events" that occur within various Exchange services. Various levels of logging determine what constitutes an event and, therefore, what types of information are actually recorded. For troubleshooting purposes, you would want a very detailed record of occurrences and, hence, set a high logging level. However, normally you would want to log only events that are critical, so set a lower logging level for everyday operation (see fig. 12.17). Individual components (for example, Directory, MTA, and Information Store) also have diagnostic logging pages for their individual service, but all services are available through this server property page.

Fig. 12.17

Control log settings for all Exchange services running on this server.

Configuring Directory Service

The Directory Service Properties pages are mainly used for configuring diagnostics information. However, there are two additional functions provided by this object that will be used more frequently during normal operation. These functions are:

Example

Exchange Server BOSTON01 is brought down for two hours for a memory upgrade. During the time of the upgrade, a new server, BOSTON08, is added to the site. When BOSTON01 is restored to proper functioning, it will not be aware of the existence of the new server until the Knowledge Consistency cycle is run at the end of the day. Knowing this, the administrator for BOSTON01 runs the Knowledge Consistency cycle manually from the Directory Service Properties pages. BOSTON01 is now aware of the new server's existence.

If an inconsistency is detected when checking manually, it is a good idea to manually execute all processes related to correcting inconsistencies. Use this sequence:

1. Check knowledge consistency from the Directory Service Properties pages and detect the error.

2. Manually update directory replication within the site by running Update Now also from the Directory Service Properties pages.

3. Open the Message Transfer Agent properties for this server and click Recalculate Routing from the General property page.

Although the preceding sequence is optional and will be automatically executed with a 24-hour period, performing the tasks immediately will reduce the possibility of other conflicts or errors.

Opening the Directory Service Properties Pages

1. Use the Microsoft Exchange administrator program to navigate to the list of servers within the site to which you are connected.

2. Click on an Exchange server within the site, and a list of configuration objects appear in the administrator program's right display window.

3. Select the Directory Service object and open its property pages.

Configuring the Microsoft Exchange Directory Service

The General Page

1. Select the General tab of the Directory Service Properties page (see fig. 12.18). The following property page appears.

Fig. 12.18

Use these two controls to manually update the local site directory and check knowledge consistency.

1. Click Update Now to request directory updates from all servers in the site. This process automatically runs every five minutes within an Exchange site.

2. Click Check Now to run a knowledge consistency check and detect any changes in servers in a site or sites in your organization. This process automatically runs once a day.

3. Enter any additional Administrative note.

4. Click Apply to set these properties and continue with other properties. If you are done with all settings, click OK to return to the administrator program.

The E-mail Addresses Page

E-mail addresses are used by the various Exchange gateways and connectors to identify specific directory objects to other messaging systems. There are three default addresses created each for MS Mail, SMTP, and X.400.

Setting public directory service e-mail addresses:

1. Click the E-mail Addresses of the Directory Service Properties pages (see fig. 12.19). The following dialog box appears.

Fig. 12.19

Define any additional e-mail address for this directory object.

2. The three default addresses (MS Mail, SMTP, and X.400) are displayed.

3. Click New to add a specific e-mail address for this directory service. Select an existing address and click Edit to modify it, or click Remove to delete it.

4. Click Apply to set these properties and continue with other properties. If you are done with all settings, click OK to return to the administrator program.

The Diagnostics Logging Page

This property page works in conjunction with the Windows NT Event Log to record various "events" that occur within the Directory Service (MSExchangeDS). Various levels of logging determine what constitutes an event and, therefore, what types of information are actually recorded. For troubleshooting purposes, you would want a very detailed record of occurrences within the Directory Service, and hence set a high logging level. However, normally you would want to log only events that are critical, so set a lower logging level for everyday operation (see fig. 12.20).

Fig. 12.20

This page controls logging for the directory synchronization service only.

Configuring Directory Synchronization Service

These property pages allow for directory synchronization between Exchange and MS Mail and other compatible foreign systems. For further directory synchronization information see chapter 17, "Using Directory Replication and Synchronization."

The following are the property pages available for configuration on the directory synchronization service:

Opening the Directory Synchronization Service Properties Pages:

1. Navigate to your desired site with the Exchange administrator program.

2. Click on the Configuration container of the selected site. All the site configuration objects appear in the administrator program's right window.

3. Open the Servers container. A list of Exchange servers in your site will be listed.

4. Click the server name on which is the directory synchronization service you want to configure.

5. Click on the Directory Synchronization object. Open its property pages.

Configuring Directory Synchronization Service Properties Pages:

The General Page

This property page allows you to view only the current server's name and enter an Administrative note (see fig. 12.21). An Exchange server's name is set when the software is installed and cannot be changed after the fact.

Fig. 12.21

The name of this server cannot be altered.

The E-mail Addresses Page

E-mail addresses are used by the various Exchange gateways and connectors to identify specific directory objects to other messaging systems. The directory synchronization service receives regular update messages sent to these addresses. There are three default addresses created each for MS Mail, SMTP, and X.400.

The Delivery Restrictions Page

The directory synchronization service executes its functions by the transfer of messages between itself and other systems. This property page assures that only specific users can send messages to the directory synchronization service.

Configuring delivery restrictions:

1. Select the Delivery Restrictions tab from the Directory Synchronization Properties pages (see fig. 12.22). The following property page appears.

Fig. 12.22

Use this page to prevent unnecessary messages from being sent to this service.

1. Use the dialog box to either restrict certain senders or to permit only certain senders.

2. Click Apply to set these properties and continue with other properties. If you are done with all settings, click OK to return to the administrator program.

The Incoming Templates Page

In this property page you can define a template that will apply to all incoming directory synchronization messages (see fig. 12.23). See chapter 17, "Using Directory Replication and Synchronization," for more details on this template and its use in directory synchronization.

Fig. 12.23

Map standard MS Mail attributes to Exchange server recipients.

The Outgoing Templates Page

In this property page you can define a template that will apply to all outgoing directory synchronization messages (see fig. 12.24). See chapter 17 for more details on this template and its use in directory synchronization.

Fig. 12.24

Map Exchange server recipient attributes to the standard MS Mail attributes.

The Diagnostics Logging Page

This property page works in conjunction with the Windows NT Event Log to record various "events" that occur within the Directory Synchronization Service. Various levels of logging determine what constitutes an event and, therefore, what types of information are actually recorded. For troubleshooting purposes, you would want a very detailed record of occurrences within the Directory Synchronization Service, and hence set a high logging level. However, normally you would want to log only events that are critical, so set a lower logging level for everyday operation.

Configuring System Attendant

System attendant service

The system attendant service must be running in order for most other Exchange system services to run. Stopping the system attendant service, for example, will prompt the halting of several other Exchange services simultaneously.

Each Microsoft Exchange server within your organization can be configured with different properties.

Configuring the System Attendant Properties pages:

1. Use the Microsoft Exchange administrator program to navigate to the list of servers within the site to which you are connected.

2. Click on the server name whose System Attendant object you want to configure.

3. In the right display window, you will see a list of objects pertaining to that Exchange server (see fig. 12.25).

Fig. 12.25

The System attendant is found in the individual Exchange server container.

4. Click on the System Attendant object and open its property pages. The property page in figure 12.26 appears.

Fig. 12.26

The System Attendant General property page

5. The General page is the first visible property page. The Display name is set as "System Attendant" by default and cannot be changed. Likewise, the Alias name for this object is set to "MicrosoftSA" and also cannot be changed.

6. Under the Message tracking log files maintenance window:
Click Do not remove old log files if you want the system attendant to keep such log files for an indefinite time.Click Remove log files older than -- days to have this system attendant delete message tracking files after a specified number of days has elapsed. Enter the number of days in the box provided. By default, this option is selected, and the log files are deleted every seven days.

Opting to keep old log files on a server with a high volume of message traffic could easily take up many megabytes of storage space. If you do select Do not remove old log files, make sure to keep track of log file sizes!

7. Enter any additional Administrative note (such as reasons for keeping all old log files) in the box provided.

8. Click Apply to set these properties and continue with other properties. If you are done with all settings, click OK to return to the administrator program.

Setting E-mail addresses for the System Attendant

E-mail addresses are used by the various Exchange gateways and connectors to identify specific directory objects to other messaging systems. The System Attendant, though not capable of receiving messages, is a directory object just the same and has a set of e-mail addresses associated with it. There are three default addresses created each for MS Mail, SMTP, and X.400.

1. Click the E-mail Addresses of the System Attendant Properties page (see fig. 12.27).

2. The three default addresses (MS Mail, SMTP, and X.400) are displayed.

Fig. 12.27

The E-mail addresses page displays the three default address for this System Attendant.

3. Click New to add a specific e-mail address for this system attendant. Select an existing address and click Edit to modify it, or click Remove to delete it.

4. Click Apply to set these properties and continue with other properties. If you are done with all settings, click OK to return to the administrator program.

All other functions of the System Attendant (such as checking directory replication inconsistencies and gathering information about other running Exchange services) are carried out without additional configuration by the administrator.

From Here...

For more information on related items, see the following chapters:

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